Liguori, more than any other person, has been responsible for promoting Mariolatry in the Roman Church, dethroning Christ and enthroning Mary in the hearts of the people. Yet instead of excommunicating him for his heresies, the Roman Church has canonized him as a saint and published his book in many editions (recently under the imprimatur of Cardinal Patrick Joseph Hays of New York). 
Mother of God. The Roman church calls Mary the �mother of God,� a name impossible, illogical and unscriptural. It is impossible, for God can have no mother; He is eternal and without beginning, while Mary was born and died within a few short years. It is illogical, for God does not require a mother for His existence. Jesus said, �Before Abram was born, I am� (Jn. 8:58). It is unscriptural, for the Bible gives Mary no such contradictory name. Mary was the honored mother of the human body of Jesus�no more. The divine nature of Christ existed for eternity from eternity past, long before Mary was born. Jesus never called her �mother�; He called her �woman.� 
Celibacy. The pope, cardinals, bishops, priests, monks and nuns are required by the Roman Catholic Church to abstain from marriage.  Yet Christ did not forbid the married life to Peter, who is regarded by the Roman Catholic Church as the first pope. Jesus showed his concern for Peter�s family when He healed his mother-in-law. �Jesus entered Peter�s house and found Peter�s mother-in-law in bed with a fever. He took her by the hand and the fever left� (Mt. 8:14-15 NAB). The Apostle Paul clearly states that all the apostles except himself were married: �Do we not have the right to accompanied by a wife, as the other apostles and the brother of the Lord and Cephas [Peter]?� (1 Cor. 9:5 RSV).  Roman Catholic theologians admit that the Apostle Peter was married but assert that he left his wife and family to follow Christ and remained celibate the rest of his life. But this viewpoint completely contradicts Scripture. Paul, who wrote 1 Corinthians in A.D. 58, says that at that time Peter was married. Therefore, comparing this date with the gospel of Matthew, we know that Peter was married at least 26 years. The Bible also teaches in 1 Corinthians 7:2-5 that husbands and wives must provide a steady sexual relationship to their marriage partner; exceptions are only made for short periods of prayer. Peter could not have left his wife to be celibate without disobeying God.
God has given explicit instructions in His Word for the qualifications of a bishop. (The Greek word for bishop, episkopos, is translated in different Bibles as elder, presbyter, bishop, and in some older versions, priest; keep in mind they are all translated from the same Greek word.) Not only is celibacy not required, but marriage and children are clearly allowed. Only having more than one wife is forbidden: �As I instructed you, a presbyter must be irreproachable, married only once, the father of children who are believers� (Tit. 1:5-6 NAB). �It behoveth therefore a bishop to be blameless, the husband of one wife...one that ruleth well his own house, having his children in subjection� (1 Tim. 3:2-4 DB).
The Bible says that the doctrine of forbidding to get married is a doctrine of demons. �The Spirit distinctly says that in later times some will turn away from the faith and will heed deceitful spirits and things taught by demons through plausible liars�men with seared consciences who forbid marriage and require abstinence from foods which God created to be received with thanksgiving� (1 Tim. 4:1-3 NAB). 
Was Peter the first pope? The Roman Catholic Church teaches that the pope is the supreme head of the church on earth, that the Apostle Peter was the first pope, and that all popes are direct successors of Peter.
Dr. Joseph Zacchello, who trained for the Roman Catholic priesthood in Italy and served as a priest in New York, carefully pointed out what the Bible teaches concerning the Apostle Peter.
Is the pope infallible? The Roman Catholic Church teaches that the pope is infallible when he speaks on matters of doctrine.  Ralph Woodrow has disproved such a claim by examining many papal statements and decisions throughout history:
Vicar of Christ? The pope, according to Roman Catholic teaching, is the vicar of Christ, Christ�s personal representative on earth.  A brief comparison will show the absurdity of such a claim.
The confessional. The Roman Catholic Church teaches that confession of our sins is to be made to an authorized priest for the purpose of obtaining forgiveness.  The Bible teaches that Christians should confess their sins to each other (not just to a priest or minister), not because Christians can forgive sins but because Christians can pray for each other and encourage each other: �Confess therefore your sins one to another: and pray for one another, that you may be saved� (Jas. 5:16 DB). In the early church, confession as a public act of repentance was done before the whole church, not just the minister: �And many of them believed, came confessing and declaring their deeds. And many of them who followed curious arts, brought together their books and burnt them all� (Ac. 19:18-19 DB).
When the scribes asked, �Why does this man speak thus? He blasphemes. Who can forgive sins but only God?� (Mk. 2:7 DB), they were right. No one but God can forgive sins�and for a mere man to claim that he can is blasphemy. Jesus answered by saying, �The Son of Man has power on earth to forgive sins� (v. 10); hence, He was not a mere man�He was God. But no priest or minister can forgive sins, because he is a man. We can go directly to God through our mediator Jesus Christ and be forgiven. 
In Acts 8:22, Peter told Simon Magus to �pray to God� for forgiveness�not to himself who was supposed to be the first pope. Confession of sins is commanded all through the Bible, but always it is confession to God, never to man. It is a striking fact that although Paul, Peter and John dealt frequently with men and women in sin, both in their teaching and in their practice they never permitted a sinner or a saint to confess to them. 
The Bible teaches that it is the privilege of every penitent sinner to confess his sins directly to God: �If we confess our sins he is faithful and righteous to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness� (Jn. 1:9). What did Jesus say when He told the story about the Pharisee and the publican? The publican had no priest, and he did not go to a confessional. All he did was cry with bowed head, �God, be thou merciful to me a sinner� (Lk. 18:13). He went directly to God, and Jesus said that he went down to his house justified. Indeed, why would anyone confess his sins to a priest when the Scriptures declare so plainly, �There is only one God, one mediator also between God and men, himself man, Christ Jesus� (1 Tim. 2:5)?  Actually, auricular confession of sin to a priest instead of to God was a late innovation instituted by Pope Innocent III at the Lateran Council in 1215.
Indulgences. The Roman Catholic Church claims to have the power of conferring indulgences. A partial indulgence remits a part of the temporal punishment due to sin, and thus can shorten the suffering due to the sinner on earth and in purgatory. A plenary indulgence gives an entire remission of temporal punishment.  �Indulgences derive their efficacy in remitting the temporal punishment due to sin from the superabundant merits of Christ and His saints.� 
The whole idea that God can forgive our sins and then assign to us temporal punishment is connected to the idea that we can gain merit through good works, and that some saints (especially Mary) have been so good that they have extra merits stored up for us less-saintly Christians. This teaching is totally unbiblical for two reasons:
(1) The Bible teaches that even the best saint cannot gain merit�even for himself. The Apostle John, writing to Christians, said, �If we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us� (1 Jn. 1:8 DB). Jesus said that even if we do obey everything we are commanded to, we do not gain merit or profit: �Even so you also, when you have done everything that was commanded you, say, �We are unprofitable servants; we have done what it was our duty to do�� (Lk. 17:10 DB).
(2) Christ has gained all the merit a Christian will ever need. He lived a sinless life, thus fulfilling the law of God for every Christian. He died an atoning death, thus paying with His own blood the penalty due every Christian for his sins. To suggest or teach that Christians can gain merit from their own works or from the works of saints takes away from the perfect work of Christ. Good works are not done to gain merit; they are done because of our love for Jesus Christ. �There is no condemnation now for those who are in Christ Jesus� (Rom. 8:1 NAB). �A single righteous act brought all men acquittal and life.... Through one man�s obedience all shall become just� (Rom. 5:18-19 NAB).
What kind of doctrine of this, which gives a man (the pope) the power of dispensing the superabundant merits of Christ and His saints to those (made available also to the souls of purgatory) who pay for membership in a Purgatorian Society, a Rosary Society, a Scapular Society, a Third Order Society? We Christians do not need a pope or bishop to grant us the merits of Christ as a reward for works of penance, wearing of a scapular, etc., since we are justified not by works but by faith (Gal. 2:16; Rom. 5:1). 
Purgatory. According to the Roman Catholic Church there exists an intermediate state called purgatory where Christians go who are not good enough to go to heaven nor bad enough to go to hell. Any person dying with mortal sin goes directly to hell after death. Venial sin, though, can be eliminated through the tortures of purgatory. 
The Bible teaches that all sin will be forgiven by Jesus Christ except one: blasphemy against the Holy Spirit: �That, I assure you, is why every sin, every blasphemy, will be forgiven men, but blasphemy against the Spirit will not be forgiven. Whoever says anything against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but whoever says anything against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven, either in this age or in the age to come� (Mt. 12:31 NAB). Christ in His earthly ministry often did miracles through the anointing of the Holy Spirit which He received at His baptism by John the baptist. The Pharisees, however, called forth Christ�s rebuke by their attributing His miracles to the devil. No Christian would ever attribute the miracles of Christ to the devil; therefore, the penitent Christian can be assured of absolute forgiveness for all sins.
All sins are mortal in that all sins are deserving of hell, yet Christ will forgive all sins of those who trust in Him. In the gospel of Luke, the Lord forgave a murderous thief who only moments before was making fun of Him: ��Indeed I promise you,� he replied, �Today you will be with me in paradise�� (Lk. 23:43 JB). The thief received complete forgiveness when he looked to the Savior in faith. Indeed, Christ promised that all who listen and believe have eternal life now�they do not have to merit it or to suffer in purgatory for it; they have it: �I tell you most solemnly, whoever listens to my words, and believes in the one who sent me, has eternal life; without being brought to judgment he has passed from death to life� (Jn. 5:24 JB).
The Apostle Paul taught that when Christians die they go immediately to be with Christ; he mentioned nothing about purgatory: �But we are confident, and have a good will to be absent rather from the body, and to be present with the Lord� (2 Cor. 5:8 DB). �To depart and to be with Christ...far the better� (Phil. 1:23 DB). When a person trusts in Jesus Christ, the Savior�s perfect life and sacrificial death actually become the possession of the believer. As far as his standing in Christ is concerned, any idea of further purification is completely wrong; further purification is unnecessary. Indeed, the believer will grow in practical holiness as he seeks to love and obey Christ, yet this holiness can in no way contribute to his justification before God. All our self-righteousness is as filthy rags in God�s sight (Isa. 64:6).
The doctrine of purgatory arose long after the death of the apostles.
Transubstantiation. According to the Roman Catholic Church, when the wine and wafer are consecrated by a priest, the substance of bread and wine is changed into the actual body and blood of Christ; this change is called transubstantiation. Underneath what appears to be bread and wine are really the body and blood, soul and divinity of Jesus Christ. 
The doctrine of transubstantiation is a denial of the biblical doctrine of Christ. Jesus Christ was fully God and fully man, two distinct natures in one person; yet these two natures are not mixed or confused in any way. This view, set forth by the church at the Council of Chalcedon in A.D. 451, is accepted by Protestants and Roman Catholics alike. Yet transubstantiation attributes divine attributes to Christ�s finite human nature.  His human body, His flesh and blood, cannot be all over the world in the eucharist at the same time without having the divine attribute of omnipresence. The Bible teaches that Jesus Christ is spiritually present�not physically present�in the bread and wine.
By studying Jesus� teaching it becomes clear that His reference to His body and blood was symbolic. Examples of Christ using figurative and symbolic speech are numerous: He referred to Himself as a door (Jn. 10:14), a temple (Jn. 2:19), a vine (Jn. 15:5), a shepherd (Jn. 10:14), and bread (Jn. 6:35). He referred to the Holy Spirit as water (Jn. 4:14). When He instituted the Lord�s supper he called the cup the new covenant (1 Cor. 11:25).
Similarly, �we know that these elements did not become the literal flesh and blood of Jesus when he �blessed� them, because He (literally) was still there! He was not changed from a person into some liquid and bread!�  �Jesus Christ, after He had blessed the sacrament, still called it �the fruit of the vine��not His literal blood (see Mt. 26:29). Paul, too, says that the bread remains bread (1 Cor. 11:27-28).�  �If the wine did became the literal blood during the mass ritual�as it is claimed�then to drink it would be forbidden by Scripture� (see Lev. 3:17; 7:26; 17:10, 12; Acts 15:20). 
�When the Roman priest consecrates the wafer it is then called the �host� and they worship it as God. But if the doctrine of transubstantiation is false, then the �host� is no more the body of Christ than is any other piece of bread! And if the soul and divinity of Christ are not present, then the worship of it is sheer idolatry, of the same kind as the pagan tribes who worship fetishes.�  According to the Roman Catholic Church, in the mass a true, proper, and propitiatory  sacrifice to God is offered. That sacrifice is identical with the sacrifice of the cross, inasmuch as Christ is both priest and victim. The only difference lies in the manner of offering, which is bloody upon the cross and bloodless on the altar. 
The Bible teaches that Christ�s sacrifice was perfect, complete, final�a one-time event never to be repeated: �Unlike the other high priest, he has no need to offer sacrifice day after day, first for his own sins and then for those of the people; he did that once for all when he offered himself� (Heb. 7:27 NAB). �Christ...as the high priest...has entered the sanctuary once for all, taking with him...his own blood, having won an eternal redemption of us� (Heb. 9:12 JB). �For Christ did not enter into a sanctuary made by hands..., he entered heaven itself that he might appear before God now on our behalf. Not that he might offer himself there again and again, as the high priest enters year after year into the sanctuary with blood that is not his own; if that were so he would have to suffer death over and over from the creation of the world. But now he has appeared at the end of the age to take away sins once for all by his sacrifice� (Heb. 9:24-26 NAB). �He...has offered one singular sacrifice for sins� (Heb. 10:12 JB). �Christ...will never die again...he dies once for all� (Rom. 6:9-10 JB)
The Roman Catholic Church does exactly the opposite of what the Bible teaches. Christ is sacrificed thousands of times each day in the ritual of the Mass! The Roman Catholic mass, the most central aspect of Roman Catholic faith, is sin, �for it is a denial of the efficacy of the atoning sacrifice of Christ on Calvary.� 
The following table shows a comparison between the communion supper instituted by Christ and that of the Roman Catholic mass today:
The Roman Catholic doctrine of justification. The Roman Catholic Church teaches that salvation depends ultimately upon ourselves, earned by obedience to the law of the church (for example, regular attendance at mass, rosary prayers, fasting, the wearing of medals, crucifixes or scapulars, etc.). In this system God forgives only those who try to atone for their sins through fruits of penance.  This whole system exists because Christ�s sacrifice on the cross is regarded as not sufficient. The Roman Catholic doctrine of justification (how a man becomes justified or perfectly righteous before God) reflects Romanism�s complicated system of salvation by works. 
The Roman Catholic Church has perverted the doctrine of justification by confounding it with the doctrine of sanctification.  Biblically speaking, after a man is justified before God, he begins a lifelong process of sanctification where he grows in holiness and obedience to God�s law. Justification is the basis, the starting point, for sanctification (Rom. 6). Justification removes the guilt of sin and restores the sinner to God�s household as a child of God. Sanctification removes sinful habits and makes the sinner more and more like Christ. Justification takes place outside of the sinner in the tribunal of God. Sanctification takes place in the inner life of man. Justification takes place once and for all. Sanctification is a continuous process which is never complete in this life. 
Conclusion. After examining some of the key Roman Catholic doctrines, it is clear that all too often the traditions and teachings of men have been substituted for true biblical doctrine. Many Roman Catholic leaders and laymen are doing charitable deeds for which they are to be commended. And not all Roman Catholic dogma is false; the divinity of Christ and the trinity are notable examples. Yet the Roman Catholic Church has departed from God�s Word in so many crucial areas that to remain under such teaching is to gamble with one�s own soul. There is no doubt that some Bible-reading, Bible-believing Roman Catholics are saved, but they are saved in spite of Romanism and not because of it.
You need to ask yourself seriously: Am I a Roman Catholic because I have studied the Bible and found that its doctrine is identical with that of the church? Or am I a Roman Catholic because I was raised in the church? Should I trust my soul to a church that practices idolatry? Should I trust the salvation of myself and my family to a church which changes its doctrine to cater to the surrounding culture (e.g., Vatican II), when biblical doctrine never has and never will change? Should I trust my place in eternity to a church which explicitly denies the biblical doctrine of salvation (e.g., Council of Trent)? Are you willing to read the Bible and obey what it says, even when it runs contrary to what your family and friends believe? Jesus said that you must love and serve Him more than your own family, even more than your own self (Lk. 14:26).
You can leave behind the heavy yoke of doubt, fear and bondage to ritual and man-made regulations by trusting in the Lord Jesus Christ alone for your salvation. Believe that Jesus Christ lived a perfect, sinless life in your place. Believe that He died a sacrificial, atoning death in order to cover your sins with His blood, thus satisfying God�s wrath against your sin. Believe that He rose from the dead victorious over sin and death for you. Believe that He ascended to the right hand of God in order to intercede for you, send the Holy Spirit to regenerate you (make you born again) and help you follow Him. Repent of your past, sinful lifestyle. True faith in Christ must issue forth into a life of godliness and good works; otherwise you do not have true faith and are still in darkness (Jas. 1-2). Remember, holiness and good works do not contribute in any way to your salvation; they are evidence that salvation has already taken place.
Suggestions for further reading
Loraine Boettner, Roman Catholicism (Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1962).
Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Luther and His Message for Today (London: Evangelical Press, 1968).
Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Roman Catholicism (London: Evangelical Press).
Ralph Woodrow, Babylon Mystery Religion (Riverside, CA, 1966).
Joseph Zacchello, Secrets of Romanism (Neptune, NJ: Loizeaux Brothers, 1948).
 Bibles quoted in this booklet: DB�Douay Bible (1914). The Old Testament is the Douay version, the New Testament is the Confraternity edition; the complete Bible is commonly called the Douay Bible or Douay Version. Officially approved by the Roman Catholic Church. JB�Jerusalem Bible (1966). In common use among Roman Catholics. NAB�New American Bible, New Testament (1970). Officially approved by the Roman Catholic Church. RSV�Revised Standard Version (1952, 1971). An altered version has been approved for lay use. Back
 St. Jerome as quoted in Pius XII, Divino Afflante Spiritu (New American Bible). Back
 Roman Catholic teaching on authority can be seen in the following documents. The Council of Trent (4th sess., 1546) stated, �Seeing clearly that this truth and discipline are contained in the written books, and the unwritten traditions.� Cf. The Dogmatic Decrees of the Vatican Council (3rd sess., 1870), chap. 2, par. 3; the Creed of Pope Pius IV. Back
 Loraine Boettner, Roman Catholicism (Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1962), pp. 78-79. Back
 Ibid., pp. 100-101, emphasis added. Back
 Council of Trent, 25th sess. (1563). Back
 In the Hebrew �You shall not bow down� is a negative hithpael imperfect; it carries the force of a causative/indirect reflexive. Thus, bowing down to a statue �as an aid to worship� causes one to worship and to serve. Attempts to separate bowing down from actual worship violate the clear teaching of the Hebrew text. Back
 Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Roman Catholicism (London: Evangelical Press), p. 6. Back
 Philip E. Hughes, The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870, (Garden City, N.J.: Image, 1964), p. 167. Back
 The doctrine of the immaculate conception of Mary was set forth in a decree by Pope Pius IX on Dec. 8, 1854. Back
 �The Catholic Church, an infallible interpreter of Holy Scripture, declares that she kept sinless her life long by a special favor of God� (Bertrand L. Conway, The Question-Box Answers [New York: Paulist, 1903], p. 377; cf. Council of Trent, 4th sess., can. 23). Back
 The Bible teaches clearly that celibacy and marriage are not to be combined. For Mary to remain a virgin her whole life, after the birth of Christ, she would have to disobey Scripture, which a godly woman like Mary would have refused to do. �The husband should give to his wife her conjugal rights, and likewise the wife her husband. For the wife does not rule over her own body, but the husband does; likewise the husband does not rule over his own body, but the wife does. Do not refuse each other except perhaps for a season, that you may devote yourselves to prayer; but then come together again, lest Satan tempt you through lack of self control� (1 Cor. 7:3-5 RSV). Back
 Boettner, pp. 138-140. Back
 Is Rome the True Church? p. 20. It is more theologically accurate to speak of Mary as the mother of Jesus� human nature; this included more than just a physical body; it includes everything there is to being a human being except the inherited sin of Adam. Back
 The celibacy of the priesthood was decreed by Pope Gregory VII (Hildebrand) in A.D. 1079. Back
 The Greek in this verse, adelph_n gunaika, is literally translated �a sister, a wife.� The more idiomatic translation is �a Christian wife.� Roman Catholic Bibles translate this phrase as �a Christian woman� or �a sister, a woman� because gunaika is sometimes translated �woman.� But every Greek lexicographer consulted translated gunaika here as �wife.� The context favors �wife,� because Paul argues that he deserves financial support as the other apostles received who were burdened with the financial responsibilities of a family. Back
 In Mt. 19:12 Jesus Christ teaches that celibacy is voluntary. In 1 Cor. 7:8-9 Paul says that celibacy is a gift. If people are having trouble controlling their sex drive, they should get married. �In one of the very few studies based on hard data�1,500 interviews between 1960 and 1985�Maryland psychologist Richard Sipe, a former priest, concluded that about 20 percent of the 57,000 U.S. Catholic priests are homosexual and that half of them are sexually active. But since 1978, Sipe believes, the number of gay priests has increased significantly; other therapists think the true figure today may be closer to 40 percent� (Kenneth L. Woodward, �Gays in the Clergy: Homosexual Priests,� Newsweek, Feb. 23, 1987, p. 58). Back
 Joseph Zacchello, Secrets of Romanism (Neptune, NJ: Loizeaux Brothers, 1948), pp. 43-44. Back
 James D. Bales as quoted by Zacchello, p. 44. Back
 �The Roman Pontiff, head of the college of bishops, enjoys this infallibility in virtue of his office, when, as supreme pastor and teacher of all the faithful...he proclaims by a definitive act a doctrine pertaining to faith or morals� (Catechism of the Catholic Church [Liguori, MO: Liguori Publications, 1994], �891). Back
 Ralph Woodrow, Babylon Mystery Religion (Riverside, CA, 1966), pp. 102-103. Back
 �The Roman Pontiff, by reason of his office as Vicar of Christ, and as pastor of the entire Church has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church...� (Catechism of the Catholic Church, �882). Back
 Ibid., p. 102 (slight alterations have been made by the author). Back
 Baltimore Catechism, p. 231. Back
 Oswald J. Smith, The Roman Catholic Bible Has the Answer (Grand Rapids, MI: Faith, Prayer and Tract League, 1953), p. 6. Back
 Jas. 5:16, which tells us to declare our sins to one another and to pray for each other, is a command to be done by all Christians for mutual edification. By knowing each other�s weaknesses and bad habits we can pray and encourage effectively. This is completely different than Roman Catholic confession. The alleged Roman Catholic Scripture proofs (Mt. 16:19 and Jn. 20:21-23�the �keys of the kingdom of heaven�) really mean that the apostles and all Christians are �instructed with the Gospel� (1 Th. 2:4) and therefore can open and close heaven in the sense that if the Gospel is not preached, heaven cannot be opened; if it is preached, then heaven can be opened to the listener who responds in faith. To interpret these passages in any other manner would make them contradict the many passages which tell us to confess directly to God (Pr. 28:13, Da. 9:20, Mt. 3:6, Mk. 1:5, 1 Jn. 1:9, etc.); Scripture cannot contradict itself. Back
 Boettner, p. 206. Back
 Catechism of the Catholic Church, �1471. Back
 Zacchello, p. 161. Back
 Ibid., pp. 163-164. Back
 Cf. Baltimore Catechism, sec. XIV, no. 181, p. 129; cf. the Council of Trent, 25th sess. Back
 Heresies of Rome, as quoted by Woodrow, p. 71. Back
 Council of Trent, 13th sess., can. 1. Back
 The mixing of the divine and human natures of Christ into one nature (Apollinarianism) was condemned by Pope Damasus. A church council at Rome (377), synods at Alexandria (378) and Antioch (379), and a council at Constantinople (381), as well as decrees issued in 383, 384 and 388, all condemned Apollinarianism as a heresy. See J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines (New York: Harper and Row, 1960), pp. 289-297. Back
 Woodrow, p. 126. Back
 Boettner, p. 178. Back
 Woodrow, p. 127. Back
 Boettner, p. 179. Back
 A propitiatory sacrifice satisfies the justice of God and removes the penalty for sin. Back
 �If anyone says that in the mass a true and real sacrifice is not offered to God...let him be anathema� (Council of Trent, 22nd sess., can. 1). �If anyone says that...Christ...did not ordain that...other priests should offer His own body and blood, let him be anathema� (can. 2). �If anyone says that the sacrifice of the mass is not a propitiatory [sacrifice]...let him be anathema� (can. 3). Cf. the New York Catechism and the Creed of Pope Pius IV. Back
 Boettner, p. 182. Back
 Woodrow, p. 140. Back
 Confusion was introduced by a mistranslation of the Greek word for �repent� to the Latin word for �do penance� (cf. Council of Trent, 14th sess., ch. 1); �repent� and �do penance� are completely different. Back
 �If anyone says that the sinner is justified by faith alone, meaning that nothing else is required to cooperate in order to obtain the grace of justification...let him be anathema.... If anyone says that justifying faith is nothing else than confidence in divine mercy, which remits sins for Christ�s sake, or that it is this confidence alone that justifies us, let him be anathema� (Council of Trent, 6th sess., can. 9, 12). Back
 See Robert D. Brinsmead, Present Truth (Fallbrooke, CA), special issue on justification by faith. Back
 �Moved by the Holy Spirit, we can merit for ourselves and for others all the graces needed to attain eternal life...� (Catechism of the Catholic Church, �2027). Back
 �Justification is a judicial act of God, in which He declares, on the basis of the righteousness of Jesus Christ, that all the claims of the law are satisfied with respect to the sinner.... Sanctification may be defined as that gracious and continuous operation of the Holy Spirit, by which He delivers the justified sinner from the pollution of sin, renews his whole nature in the image of God, and enables him to perform good works� (L. Berkhof, Systematic Theology (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1965), pp. 513, 532. Back
 Ibid., pp. 513-514. Back
Copyright � Brian Schwertley, Lansing, Michigan, 1996